In New Haven, a Teachers Union Embraces Change

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Melanie Stengel / The New Haven Register / AP

From left: Mayor John DeStefano, Representative Rosa DeLauro, and U.S. Education Secretary Arne Duncan participate in a round table discussion on education reform at Jepson School in New Haven, Conn., on May 29, 2012.

New Haven, Conn. — In the spring of 2011, David Cicarella, the teachers union president here, sat down with a tenured teacher for a difficult discussion. After a warning from his principal and months of extra support, the teacher had failed to show improvement. With a failing grade on a performance evaluation, Cicarella explained, there was little he could do to hang onto his job.

“How could you let this happen to me?” replied the teacher, Cicarella recalled. “I pay dues!” Cicarella accepted the curses hurled at him: His union had helped design the new evaluation system and would support its consequences, even if it meant that a teacher with more than 15 years of experience would lose his job.

The conversation came as Cicarella ushered his union into new territory with a teacher evaluation system that counts student performance, based on teacher-set learning goals that include standardized tests, as one of three measures of a teacher’s effectiveness. The system has pushed out a small number of teachers—62 so far, out of more than 1,800—while helping many others improve enough to keep their jobs.

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The evaluations represent a shift in mentality for the union. While teachers unions in other cities have felt under attack by reformers bent on eliminating tenure and opening up privately run charter schools, the New Haven Federation of Teachers has worked with district leaders on a collaborative approach to reform. In doing so, union leaders have found they were able to dictate many of the terms.

New Haven’s case gives a glimpse into the possible future for teachers unions, as locals across the country search for ways to respond to a national push for greater teacher accountability without ceding too much power. New Haven has drawn attention for making progress without the rancor or public standoffs that have left places like Chicago and New York City deadlocked over how to fix public schools. Unions in Baltimore, Md., and St. Paul, Minn., have used New Haven as a blueprint for their own labor contracts, and U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan has highlighted New Haven’s work at national conferences on labor-management collaboration.

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The partnership was a deliberate plan by a longtime Democratic mayor, John DeStefano, Jr. and a national union leader, Randi Weingarten of the American Federation of Teachers (AFT), to make New Haven a proving ground. An astute politician, DeStefano had taken note of what was happening in Washington, D.C., where the AFT was reeling from a bitter fallout with Schools Chancellor Michelle Rhee over teacher tenure and pay. He invited Weingarten to New Haven to try a more collaborative approach. Weingarten seized the chance to prove her union could be part of the solution to fix public schools. She declared the approach, where changes were negotiated in a union contract, successful: “New Haven is a gold standard in terms of how you do things right.”

The effort dates back to 2008, when DeStefano faced mounting criticism over the deterioration of a school system that serves 20,000 students, nearly all of them poor and black or Hispanic. Only one in five third-graders was reading at grade level.

Over the course of six months, labor and management agreed on the outline of a reform plan. DeStefano said he stopped pushing to get rid of tenure when the union agreed to a teacher evaluation that would make it easier to fire tenured teachers. And he stopped advocating for more charter schools when the union agreed to an alternative: let the district hire new management to take over a few failing schools each year as “turnarounds.” Teachers at turnaround schools have to abide by new work rules, which could include a longer day with extra pay.

Not all teachers are pleased with the union’s embrace of reform. Some argue that attaching major consequences to student tests forces teachers to move away from the more in-depth, higher-level thinking that keeps kids engaged in school. But in a recent union vote, Cicarella won reelection unopposed, a sign that the union will stay the course.

MarcAnthony Solli, a 14-year veteran English teacher and son of a former teachers union president, said the new evaluations reflect a change in the fundamental relationship between labor and management. “We’re in a post-industrial version of this profession,” he said. “This us-versus-them mentality has to give way.”

This story was produced by The Hechinger Report, a nonprofit, nonpartisan education-news outlet based at Teachers College, Columbia University.
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4 comments
Eyeforgot
Eyeforgot

The only BOE appointed by the Mayor in CT and the only CT school system that is getting national notice for dramatic results.

JOagain
JOagain

New Haven is hardly a model for anything. It's dependent on the state for half its budget, on federal grants to pay its police force, on statewide taxpayers to overpay for its $1.6 billion new schools in which the students largely fail to learn at a cost of almost $20K per year per kid not including debt service. Indeed, if one were to look at the total cost of education in New Haven, it is not surprising that we are among the most expensive failures in the nation. Our two largest high schools fail to graduate even half the students that pass through its doors and this has been going on for a generation. Those that do and go to college which is not that many relatively speaking, more than 90% need remedial help in the basics like math and English. There is some improvement in test scores but that's because they spend at least a month per test, teaching the test - not critical thinking, problem solving and basics like reading and writing correctly. It is remarkable to me, as a parent living in New Haven, that anybody thinks this reform movement, rooted in federal money and only because of federal money, is here to stay or will produce long term results. One need only look at the wasted time at the end of the school year to understand just how poorly run this system is. Kids have had very little homework and have enjoyed days playing in the park, a trip to the movies, a theme park and New York City. Learning, reform? Please. It's about posting a few good scores on a standardized test and after that, it's business as usual while the powers that be pat themselves on the back and remark on the improvements they've made. They made precisely the same comments before reform, when the same high schools were called "drop out factories" and they gloated over incremental test score improvement that was so small you needed a microscope to spot it.

brutus2011
brutus2011 like.author.displayName 1 Like

Melissa Bailey writes a good report here. However, I see a bias toward New Haven really being a model for the rest of the nation. Or more precisely, being a model that the rest of the nation should be implementing in other urban school districts. I disagree. As a member of the New Haven community, a teacher, and a parent of a school-age child, I have observed up close that this reform effort is a trojan horse pregnant with the progeny of the privatization of public education. How? Mayor DeStefano is in his 10th consecutive 2 year term. He appoints the New Haven Board of Education--the only mayorally appointed BOE in Ct. The mayor sits on the New Haven BOE AND he sits on the board of Achievement First, a locally founded private charter school network with schools now in Ct, NY, and RI. In addition, a founder of Achievement First, Stephan Pryor, was just appointed by Gov. Dan Malloy as the Ct State Dept of Education Commissioner. The mayor has also appointed Alex Johnston, the former CEO of ConnCan (a privately funded advocacy group for private charter schools) to the New Haven BOE. The mayor has just appointed another Achievement First board member to the New Haven BOE. Finally, the mayor pushed through the sale of a closed New Haven school to Achievement First who had already secured a 35 million dollar grant from the Ct SDE to build a new AF charter high school. I trust by now the connections and chain of events are self-evident. It is not a stretch at all to see that what New Haven really is doing is hybridizing public education with the privatization model exemplified by Achievement First. Not a bad thing you may say? Then why are charter schools only appearing in our city communities of color? I leave you to your own conclusions or even better, to begin to research what this whole education reform is really about. Our republic may depend upon it.

BorisIII
BorisIII like.author.displayName 1 Like

Like all gov. jobs the pay is going down and the work load is increasing and so people with potential will continue to go into into other fields.